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The Eco-efficiency Model for Outdoor Environmental Design of the Mixed-use Real Estate Development in Bangkok, Thailand

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Nowadays, the dramatic increase of urban land developments affects various environmental problems, especially in urban heat and the reduction of natural porosity surfaces, then increasing outdoor temperature and surface water runoff problems. These problems relate to urban residents' outdoor living, especially in the large mixed-use real estate developments in Bangkok; the capital city of Thailand. Therefore, the Magnolia Quality Development Corporation Limited (MQDC) has concerned about mitigating such problems by applying the eco-efficiency modeling to use as a sustainable design guideline for the new project development; named Whizdom 101. The term of eco-efficiency is defined as the ratio of improvement cost per unit of the environmental impacts. This study formulates the eco-efficiency model by using the change in construction cost of the outdoor environment and their impacts which refer to the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) as an indicator for the thermal comfort index of humans and stormwater runoff. The cost is calculated by a simple cost estimation technique. Meanwhile, the microclimate model ENVI-met BioMet (V4) was used for predicting the effect of different design options on outdoor thermal comfort using PET, and the Stormwater Runoff Test (SRT) is also calculated by the academic Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) for Autodesk Infraworks 360 software. The results presented as the prediction function of the eco-efficiency of the outdoor environmental design. Research suggests that previous paving materials are broadly capable of lowering temperatures and improving human thermal comfort, and when integrated with trees have the potential to meet eco-efficiency objectives. Moreover, the models can be used as a useful guideline for the outdoor environmental design of the Whizdom 101 to toward the most eco-friendly for urban residents’ outdoor living of mixed-use real estate development in Bangkok, Thailand.


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