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How to Help an Electric Shock Victim?

By RISC | 1 day ago

In the last article, we looked at the design and installation of electrical systems to avoid shock and short circuits (you can read it again at https://bit.ly/45YXDnM). Let’s now look at what to do in an emergency involving an electric shock. How should we respond and act correctly and safely?When someone is electrocuted, the current passes through the heart, causing it to stop. Muscles, bones, abdominal organs, and the nervous system can also be affected. A very high current can cause severe tissue damage, leading to injuries in the abdominal organs. Some people may experience muscle spasms, rapid breathing, and loss of consciousness.For initial first aid, we should:- Immediately call the emergency hotline 1669 during the rescue or first aid process, so experts can arrive in time. The severity of the harm depends on the duration of the electric shock, and proper assistance can increase the victim's chances of survival.- Quickly find the source of the electric leak and cut off the circuit to prevent the rescuer from being electrocuted as well.- If someone is being electrocuted and a wire is touching them, use insulating materials that do not conduct electricity, such as wood, dry rope, rubber hoses, rubber gloves, or thick dry cloths, to push or pull the victim away quickly or flick the wire away from them.- If it's a high-voltage electric shock, notify the electricity authority immediately to cut off the power and call the emergency hotline 1669.- If the victim is electrocuted in a flooded area, the rescuer must not enter the water. Cut off the power before attempting a rescue.- Approach the rescue quickly, carefully, and cautiously. Cover the area that was electrocuted with a dry cloth. If there are wounds or uncertain injuries to the skin and tissues in the area, take the victim to the hospital immediately.Remember! Safety is the most important thing. Being prepared and cautious can reduce the risk of electric shock.Additionally, learning and practicing first aid methods for electric shock is something everyone should be interested in. When an incident occurs, we can help promptly. Keep the phone numbers of relevant agencies, such as rescue units and hospitals, handy for emergency calls.Preventing electric shock and short circuits during the rainy season isn’t difficult. Regularly inspecting and maintaining electrical appliances in the home with simple methods can effectively prevent electric shock hazards, allowing everyone to live safely and comfortably during the rainy season.Story by Montri Phulanku, Senior Research Engineer, Well-Being Research Integration and Building Infrastructure Specialist, RISC​​

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Watch Out for Animal Visitors in the Rainy Season…

By RISC | 1 week ago

Rain in the rainy season can bring some wildlife into our homes and gardens that isn’t always welcome. But we can stay safe with some simple steps.​​Thailand’s rainy season is already underway. In addition to taking extra care when we travel, we should stay alert for various creatures. RISC has tips for dealing with 3 types of creature so both you and they can avoid harm. ​Snakes can be a concern. They typically live in bushes, trees, and damp undergrowth. But they can come out in search of rats. Keep your home clean to ensure there are no food sources or hiding spots. If you find a snake near your home that you fear might be dangerous, you can call 199 for immediate assistance.​Rove beetles are another worry. They need humidity to breed and prefer the night. They produce a toxin called paederin that can cause skin irritation, redness, and blisters. Keep all your windows and doors closed and check your bed or seating area often. If you meet one, blow or shake it away without touching it.​Tiny creatures like centipedes and scorpions can also be found in damp corners and leaf piles. Their toxins can harm humans and pets. An accidental touch can induce allergies. And, in extreme cases, severe allergies can result in death.​During the rainy season keep your home and garden tidy, eliminating corners like piles of materials, wood chips, and leaves. Repair cracks and soil subsidence to keep these creatures out.​Kotchakorn Rattanama, Biodiversity Researcher, RISC ​Reference:​Health Literacy and Communication Promotion Division, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health​

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Watch Out for Short Circuits in the Rainy Season!

By RISC | 1 week ago

Short circuits are a common danger for homes in the rainy season, putting everyone at risk.​ But RISC has some handy tips for your well-being.​Electrical system design should meet requirements based on appropriate concepts and usage type. Here we’ll look at systems for villas and townhouses.​Safety is the top priority to avoid shocks and fires. Design must incorporate...​1. High-quality wires that meet TIS or IEC requirements. In general, electrical wiring for household use should be scaled to match the operational load and the size of each type of circuit protection device.​2. Lighting circuits and electrical outlets should have separate circuits in the kitchen, bathroom, and for high-energy electrical devices like air conditioners and ovens.​3. To minimize electrical shocks and short circuits, install the main electrical cabinet in an easily accessible area. Include a leakage protection device (RCD) and a circuit breaker (MCB). Install equipment to prevent electric shock and overvoltage (RCBO).​ ​Image 1 from PMK Corporation Ltd. ​ Image 2 from PMK Corporation Ltd.​​Residual Current Device (RCD) installation is often done in a consumer unit in the home. This equipment is used to turn off electricity automatically. The electricity will be turned off after a set amount of time when an electric current enters and exits with uneven value. In other words, some power is leaking, either from electrical appliances to the ground or through humans in contact with leaking equipment.​There are several varieties of leakage breakers, including residual current circuit breakers (RCD, RCBO, RCCB) and ground leakage circuit breakers (ELCB, GFCI). They will be used in conjunction with other types of circuit breakers such as MCB circuit breakers or MCCB circuit breakers. But there are 3 common types: ​1) RCCBs (Residual Current Circuit Breakers) are used to interrupt the circuit only during a current leak and must always be fitted in conjunction with a fuse or circuit breaker. ​2) RCBO (Residual Current Circuit Breakers with Overload Protection) are used to switch off the circuit during a leakage current, overcurrent, or short circuit current. ​3) ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker) is a circuit breaker that is used to prevent electric shock, detect electrical leaks, and turn off electricity, as well as protect against electrical leaks. ​A leakage circuit breaker has several advantages, including preventing electrocution, fires caused by electrical leaks in electrical circuits or electrical appliances, and detecting and repairing any point of electrical current leaking to the earth. There are 2 installation techniques. ​1. Install it at the main switch panel, for example, replacing the primary circuit breaker with an RCBO to prevent fires. ​2. Install a branch circuit protection device, such as an RCCB, to prevent electric shock. ​The following specifications must be taken into consideration while selecting a leaking cutter.​1. Industrial product standards (TIS) regulating RCBO type leakage circuit breakers (TIS 909-2005) or RCCB type leakage circuit breakers (TIS 2425-2009) must be followed in the manufacturing and testing of leakage cutters.​2. To reduce the risk of electric shock, a leakage cutter must have a leakage current rating of no more than 30 milliamperes.​3. To transfer the leaking power and allow it to flow into the ground without endangering anyone in contact with it, a leakage cutter must be fitted in conjunction with the ground wire. It also facilitates the RCD's effective operation and aids in the device's protection against overcurrent (circuit breaker).​4. Install sub-circuits at the potentially dangerous regions, such as basements, wet areas, kitchens, shower rooms, bathrooms, and electrical circuits outside of buildings. Don't forget to install sub-circuits for bathtubs and water heaters. ​5. The overcurrent protection device's rated current cannot be lower than the RCD's current rating. ​6. A leakage cutter needs to be of the kind that cuts off all wires from the circuit, even the neutral wire, except for the wire which is directly linked to ground. ​7. Put in the RCD where the main circuit breaker is located. Select a time delay type (type S) RCD with a leakage current rating greater than 30 mA, such as 100 mA or 300 mA. ​Additionally, by routinely inspecting the wiring and electrical equipment, we can prevent electric shock by using the following techniques. ​1. Inspect the home's electrical equipment and wires for damage. If damage is discovered, have a qualified technician replace or repair it right away. ​2. Ensure that the electrical cabinet and control panel are cleaned on a regular basis to keep out moisture and dust that could result in a short circuit. ​3. Using the RCD's test button to check the short circuit protection or electric shock prevention devices every 6 months or once a year. ​4. Have an expert technician inspect the electrical loading cabinet to ensure that the grounding system is still in good condition and fulfills the standards specified by the electricity authority. ​5. Avoid using electrical appliances that are at risk of electrical leakage, such as washing machines or irons, particularly during heavy rain or thunderstorms. Ensure that the equipment and facilities are in a safe condition while in use. ​6. Do not handle electrical equipment with wet hands, which can enhance the danger of electric shock. Always dry your hands before utilizing electrical equipment.  ​Story by Montri Phulanku, Senior Research Engineer, Well-Being Research Integration and Building Infrastructure Specialist, RISC​​

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"Stress": The Hidden Threat​

By RISC | 3 weeks ago

In our fast-paced world, stress can be hard to avoid, but it threatens our health in many ways.Stress is our response to challenging situations. It’s the body's instinctive reaction to preparing for an exam, working on a project, or presenting a plan to the boss. Acute stress helps us work, think, find solutions, and overcome challenges.​But what happens when we’re always stressed?​Repeated stress becomes chronic stress that can cause long-term problems. Our bodies gather energy to help us work and speed up brain function so we can focus. But stressed organs get overused until they fail, like a laptop that never reboots. Chronic stress can affect the entire body.​Organs at risk include the cardiovascular, excretory, respiratory, and immune systems. A study led by Yuli Huang [1] found that continuous work stress increases the risk of having a stroke by 22%. Tanya M. Spruill's study [2] discovered that chronic stress raises blood pressure and increases the risk of heart disease by more than 50%. A study by David A. Kalmbach and colleagues [3] found that prolonged stress can create sleep issues. The body under stress is constantly ready to perform tasks, causing trouble sleeping and leading to long-term problems.​Chronic stress not only causes physical harm, but it is also one of the leading causes of mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. A study by Paula Cristóbal-Narváez and colleagues [4] found a link between depression and chronic stress. A study by Nuria Daviu and colleagues [5] explained the link to anxiety problems produced by persistent stress.​Chronic stress is a leading cause of physical and emotional problems. In the next article, we'll look at how to relieve it.​Story by Nattapat Tanjariyaporn, Senior Researcher in Brain Computer Interface, RISC​References:​[1] Association Between Job Strain and Risk of Incident Stroke ​[2] Association Between High Perceived Stress Over Time and Incident Hypertension in Black Adults: Findings From the Jackson Heart Study ​[3] The Impact of Stress on Sleep: Pathogenic Sleep Reactivity as a vulnerability to Insomnia and Circadian Disorders ​[4] Perceived stress and depression in 45 low- and middle-income countries ​[5] Neurological Links Between Stress and Anxiety

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Innovations in Carbon Capture for Construction

By RISC | 3 weeks ago

CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage) is a comprehensive approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions from factories or direct air. Once captured, the CO₂ can be used in various applications, such as enhanced oil recovery or the production of chemicals and materials, providing economic value while reducing emissions. Alternatively, the captured CO₂ is securely stored underground in geological formations, ensuring that it remains sequestered and does not contribute to climate change.During all these major efforts, construction is playing its part and taking on new ideas. The industry is starting to use new carbon capture tech to cut emissions and even turn them negative. By adding carbon capture to building materials, construction can switch from releasing greenhouse gases to removing them. This article will look at some key materials and methods to make carbon capture work in construction, showing how the industry can significantly help tackle climate change.Carbon-Cured ConcreteOne promising approach is carbon-cured or carbonated concrete, where waste CO₂ is injected into the fresh concrete mix. The carbon dioxide reacts with cement to form calcium carbonate nanomaterials that get permanently embedded in the concrete matrix, trapping the CO₂.[1] This process can sequester 5-20% of the concrete's weight as CO₂ while also increasing compressive strength.[2] Systems have been developed to capture CO₂ directly from industrial sources like power plants or cement kilns and transport it to concrete batch plants for utilization.[3][4] The resulting carbon-cured concrete is stronger and has a lower carbon footprint.Carbon Mineralization ProductsOther researchers are exploring ways to mineralize captured CO₂ into solid carbonates that can be used as construction materials themselves. At UCLA, CO₂ was mineralized with industrial brine wastes into calcium and magnesium carbonates that could replace some cement or aggregate components.[5] These mineralized CO₂ products could potentially be used in concrete or as construction binders or aggregates.Integrated Carbon Capture SystemsAn MIT team designed an electrochemical system that captures CO₂ from a cement plant's emissions and converts it into synthetic limestone (CaCO₃) pellets that are then incorporated back into the concrete production process on-site.[6]Biomass and BiocharPlant biomass can also help capture and store carbon in construction through approaches like biochar. Biochar is a carbon-rich solid produced by heating biomass such as wood waste in a low-oxygen environment. Studies found adding biochar to concrete could increase strength while permanently sequestering the biomass carbon.[7]Timber ConstructionUsing timber and mass timber products is one of the most straightforward ways constructions can become carbon-negative. As trees grow, they absorb CO₂ from the air through photosynthesis, storing it in their woody biomass. Using this timber in buildings keeps the sequestered carbon locked up for decades. Lifecycle assessments show wood buildings can have substantially lower embodied carbon than steel or concrete structures.[8] New mass timber techniques allow larger timber buildings up to 18 stories tall.[9]Overcoming ChallengesOvercoming challenges in implementing carbon capture in construction is paramount given the sector’s substantial carbon footprint and the high costs and energy intensity involved. The key hurdles for validating permanent CO₂ sequestration include ensuring occupant comfort and safety. While material-based CCUS technologies such as timber construction and biochar composites offer immediate opportunities, their CO₂ absorption capacity is limited. Chemical-based solutions such as CO₂-cured concrete show promise but require thorough evaluation of environmental tradeoffs. Collaborative efforts are crucial to facilitate CCUS implementation aligned with sustainable development goals in cities, including advancing research, providing incentives, securing financing, fostering public engagement, and integrating systems planning. Ultimately, overcoming challenges will pave the way for carbon capture technologies to play a vital role in urban decarbonization and the transition to net negative emission assets. Story by Difei Miao RISC Advisor, CCUS Research Project Consultant, Nanotech SpecialistReferences:1. Ravikumar, D., Zhang, D., Keoleian, G. et al. Carbon dioxide utilization in concrete curing or mixing might not produce a net climate benefit. Nat Commun 12, 855 (2021). (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21148-w)2. Reuters. "Concrete traps CO2 from soaked air in climate-friendly test." Reuters, February 3, 2023. (https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/concrete-traps-co2-soaked-air-climate-friendly-test-2023-02-03/)3. American Chemical Society. "New Way to Capture and Recycle Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Emissions." ACS PressPac, August 2023. (https://www.acs.org/pressroom/presspacs/2023/august/new-way-to-capture-and-recycle-carbon-dioxide-from-industrial-emissions.html)4. Kulasuriya, C.; Vimonsatit, V.; Dias, W.P.S. Performance based energy, ecological and financial costs of a sustainable alternative cement. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, Volume 287.5. La Plante, E.C.; et al. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2021, 9 (32), 10727-10739. 6. MIT News (2022). Cracking the carbon removal challenge. (https://news.mit.edu/2022/cracking-carbon-removal-challenge-verdox-0915)7. Mensah, R.A.; et al. Biochar-Added Cementitious Materials—A Review on Mechanical, Thermal, and Environmental Properties. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9336. (https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169336)8. Andersen, C.E.; et al. Embodied GHG Emissions of Wooden Buildings—Challenges of Biogenic Carbon Accounting in Current LCA Methods. Frontiers in Built Environment 2021, 7.9. Autodesk. "Mass Timber Construction." https://www.autodesk.com/design-make/articles/mass-timber-construction

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Ozone’s Dual Role in Global Warming

By RISC | 3 weeks ago

Global warming has long been recognized as a significant worldwide issue with serious consequences for the environment and human society. An increase in greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is causing the global average temperature to keep rising, bringing natural disasters and harming our ecosystems and lives.​​Ozone is the most significant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.​ ​Ozone (O₃) is generated by the combination of oxygen (O₂), which is common in the air, and free oxygen atoms (O₂₋), which are broken down by ultraviolet light (UV) from oxygen molecules.When ozone absorbs energy from the sun's ultraviolet radiation, however, it undergoes the same breakdown, resulting in free oxygen atoms and oxygen gas molecules.​Ozone plays conflicting roles to global warming and climate change.​ In the stratosphere, the middle layer of the atmosphere, ozone protects against damaging radiation from the sun and reduces heat absorption from the earth's surface. In the lower atmosphere, in the troposphere, ozone contributes to the greenhouse effect.​Let's see how…​Ground level ozone is from 0 to 2 kilometers in the troposphere. Most of this ozone now comes from chemical reactions caused by human activities. Automobile and industrial exhaust contain nitrogen oxide (NOₓ) as the main component. Photochemical reactions and ultraviolet radiation from volatile organic compounds (VOC), house paint, cigarette smoke, bleach, or insecticides boost ozone levels. Ground-level ozone harms our health and also traps heat radiation from the earth's surface, causing global temperatures to rise. It is 3 times more efficient at absorbing heat than carbon dioxide.​New inventions and advances can reduce dangerous pollutants that cause ozone production in the troposphere. Small aerosol particle capture systems such as nitrogen oxide gas removal systems can minimize ozone emissions from industrial plants, as well as emissions from internal combustion engines in electric and hybrid automobiles. These developments and technologies are regarded as one of the most essential strategies to mitigate the consequences of global warming, together with reducing other greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide and methane to maintain ecological balance and a hospitable environment.​​Story by Chanin Kulsurakit, Sustainable Designer, WELL AP, DGNB International, TREES-A specialist, and DGNB Consultant at RISC​

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Putting up Mold- and Allergy-Free Wallpaper

By RISC | 4 weeks ago

Have you ever put up wallpaper in your home!​There may be risks hidden under the pretty colors. Thailand's hot and humid environment means that moisture accumulates on walls. Rainwater can leak in from the walls or roof. Broken water pipes can make the situation worse.​What’s more, using AC to keep your home at 25-27°C when outdoors is 36°C creates a relative humidity of over 60%RH, particularly in April. Condensation forms inside the wall depending on where the dew point temperature occurs when heat meets cold, just like fog on a window or water droplets on a cold glass. ​Chart 1: Psychrometric Chart displays a dew point temperature of 28°C when the outside air temperature is 36 °C and the relative humidity is 60%RH.​These issues result in moisture accumulating on house walls. We should avoid using additional materials to prevent it and instead go for a material that allows moisture to escape from the wall as fast as possible.​If the wall surface is decorated or other materials limit ventilation, such as wallpaper, issues with brick or concrete walls may be concealed. Particles and dirt behind the wallpaper will create fungus, resulting in air pollution, triggering allergic reactions. ​Figure 1: Condensation on building walls.​Figure 2: Mold on building walls is caused by coating the surface with substance that holds moisture. Figure 3 illustrates how to install wallpaper to reduce mold on building walls.​If you must use wallpaper to decorate your home, RISC has tips on material selection and installation techniques.​• To avoid dampness, examine and seal any leaks or cracks in the wall surface before allowing it to dry completely.​• Use a moisture-resistant foundation with antifungal ingredients.​• Select a non-toxic glue with low volatile organic compounds (low-VOCs) and no food-for-fungi additives. ​• Select breathable wallpaper and non-toxic ink to protect your health.​Wallpaper is not to blame if we can regulate our home's surroundings. To reduce the risk of fungus, avoid putting wallpaper in residential areas, particularly bedrooms, where environmental management is difficult.​Ultimately, think about when you last observed a difference in the walls of your home.​Story by Saritorn Amornjaruchit, Assistant Vice President of RISC

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Why Should We Care about Natural Light?​

By RISC | 1 month ago

Natural light is a dear friend who’s been with us since we first opened our eyes. But we now seek to avoid it out of concerns over heat and radiation.Sunlight produces heat and radiation but we cannot live without in our daily lives. Natural light aids in vision, waking, sleeping, and our lifestyle. Light directly affects health, aiding both physical and mental recovery as well as helping with emotional disorders. A study found that more time outdoors in natural light boosts work effectiveness.​The International WELL Building Institute (IWBI), the WELL Building Standard developer, and the U.S. Green Building Council, the LEED standard creators, aim to bring natural light into usable spaces within buildings by focusing on the value of receiving natural light, entering in 2 ways:​• To meet annual sunlight exposure (ASE) standards, buildings must get over 1,000 lux of natural light for 250 hours per year and not exceed 10% of total area. This is an ideal ratio for admitting natural light into the structure that strikes a balance between obtaining adequate sunshine for health and regulating heat within the building.​• Spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA) refers to the proportion of an area receiving enough light in a year. This is achieved by exposing at least 50% of working hours to natural light of at least 300 lux for 55%, 75%, or 90% of the total area. The more natural light that reaches the space, the higher the score from the criteria (USGBC, 2018).​We can observe that neither value has a stable maximum brightness value since the activities in the area have variable requirements for maximum brightness, such as working hours throughout the seasons when light does not reach the same areas. Therefore, the value is set to total hours instead.​In addition, IWBI requires 6-7 meters of workstation close to the window, which accounts for 30% of the work area on each floor. This is in line with the observed lighting simulation results. At distances greater than 6-7 meters, the brightness in the area falls below 300 lux, which is deemed insufficient for operation and must be supplemented with artificial light.​The lighting model on 21 December 2024 at 3pm shows the importance of choosing the location for use of space on each side of the building. Inside the northeast room, there is an average light value of 1,078 lux, with no sunlight shining into the room. Rooms in the southwest were the rooms with the highest average overexposure of 11,229 lux, which was accompanied by hot sunlight. The southwest should therefore be avoided as a regular work area.​Building design has a considerable impact on the occupants' exposure to natural light. Furthermore, it is an important issue that requires computer simulation models to determine the accuracy of ASE and sDA values early in the design process to provide space for building users to receive adequate natural light.​We now know the value of sunlight. So, don't forget to shift the table and chairs to receive some natural light.​In the next post, we'll look at what happens if we face a poor, inappropriate light that is bad for us.Find out more about light and simulations to evaluate its efficiency from Research & Innovation for Sustainability Center (RISC) at RISC Well-Being Facebook Inbox, or RISC LINE Official: risc_center.​Story by Wacharakorn Maneechote, Sustainable Designer, Well-Being Research Integrations, RISC

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Why Does Thailand Stay Hot All Year?

By RISC | 1 month ago

Thais joke that their country has 3 seasons: hot, very hot, and super hot. It's not the climate they’d prefer.​Thailand actually has 3 seasons: summer, rainy season, and winter. So why do we always feel hot? Let's try to find why...​When you check the air temperature, you’ll often see "feels like …." This perceived temperature is usually higher than the air temperature on the thermometer. The number is calculated with factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation.​RISC simulated the outcomes and examined the data's accuracy.​ The Meteorological Department's 2021 weather data show average maximum temperatures in the summer, rainy season, and winter of 36°C, 34°C, and 33.5°C. Foreca, an accurate weather forecast data source, said average relative humidity in summer is 73.33%RH, in the rainy season is 76%RH, and in winter is 69.5%RH. Wind speed averages 6 km/hr in summer, 4 km/hr in the rainy season, and 4.75 km/hr in winter.​​The solar radiation value was analyzed using a simulation software tool, and a substantial radiation concentration number was discovered within one day of the summer, rainy, and winter seasons. The maximum average solar radiation was 0.41 kWh/m2, 0.25 kWh/m2, and 0.38 kWh/m2, respectively. These figures are consistent with clear skies and few clouds in winter and summer, letting the sun's rays go straight to the earth. During the rainy season, many clouds can obstruct the sun's beams.​The data analysis revealed that ​• Summer has the highest temperatures, wind speeds, and sun radiation. Perceived temperature is 42.7°C.​• The rainy season has moderate temperatures and the highest relative humidity. Perceived temperature is 41°C.​• Winter has the lowest temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, and sun radiation. Perceived temperature is 38.4°C.​As we can see, we frequently sense air temperatures that are higher than the thermometer reading due to factors such as relative humidity, wind speed, and sun radiation. In the summer, even with high air temperature and sun radiation values, wind not only lowers the temperature to a comfortable level but also makes us feel the temperature drop. And if we are in an atmosphere with an air temperature of 22-29°C or lower and the wind speed increases by 1 kilometer per hour (km/hr), we will feel 0.4 °C cooler.Furthermore, having a relative humidity value higher than the comfort zone of 20-75% during the rainy season contributes to us feeling hotter and more uncomfortable. The greater relative humidity rating will make you feel even hotter because the rate of perspiration evaporation from your body reduces.​ Using simulation software in analysis allows us to clearly and reliably forecast future outcomes that have yet to occur. The results of the solar radiation simulation can also be used to improve building design and orientation, boosting comfort throughout the year and in each season.​RISC employs a team of experts who can analyze data on the sun's orbital path using Building Information Modeling (BIM). The simulation software creates building virtual models to study the intensity of solar radiation on the surface and display accurate results based on Thailand’s weather data.Find out more from Research & Innovation for Sustainability Center (RISC) at the RISC Well-Being Facebook Inbox or RISC LINE Official: risc_center.​Story by Panisara Sucharitkul, Sustainable Designer, Well-Being Research Integration, RISC​References:​Air temperature: https://weather-and-climate.com/Bangkok-January-averages​Sky conditions: http://164.115.28.46/thaiexen/search_detail/result/8374​Relative humidity and wind speed: https://weather-and-climate.com/Bangkok​The Feel Like temperature (Perceived Temperature): https://planetcalc.com/2089/​How the wind speed makes us feel cool: https://risc.in.th/knowledge/electric-fan-saves-more-energy#:~:text=%E0%B9%82%E0%B8%94%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B8%E0%B8%A9%E0%B8%A2%E0%B9%8C%E0%B8%88%E0%B8%B0%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B9%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B6%E0%B8%81%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A2%E0%B9%87%E0%B8%99,C%20%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%96%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%94%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%94%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%A1Relative humidity makes us feel hot:​ https://mgronline.com/science/detail/9630000049979#:~:text=%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%A7%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B8%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B7%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%99%E0%B9%83%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A8,%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A2%E0%B9%87%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%88%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%87%E0%B9%86%20%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B7%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A8%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%AB%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%87

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Trees Make the Best Fences

By RISC | 1 month ago

Many people experience privacy issues in their homes. But walls and fences can be costly. How can we solve this problem?​A low-cost option is to create a tree fence.​Fences make homes more comfortable. And planting trees benefits us in many ways, including physical, scenic, mental, and economic. Planting trees as a barrier stops people looking in. The plants can hide unattractive areas and reduce noise too.Trees with a lot of leaves and thick foliage in lines 15-30 meters wide and at the appropriate height for the sound source can absorb up to 5-10 dB. Their colors also enhance the view.​When choosing trees for a fence or along a fence, start with dense shrubs with many leaves that are easy to maintain. Plants can be put into 4 categories.​- Plants can be used to conceal undesirable views or use as a fence such as Ochna integerrima, Flacourtia indica, Uvaria siamensis, Dasymaschalon lomentaceum Finet & Gagnep, Wrightia religiosa Benth., Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr., Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack., Streblus asper Lour., Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam., Ficus Benjamina L., Bauhinia acuminata, Phyllodium elegans (Lour.) Desv., Melastoma malabathricum L., Olax scandens Roxb., Vietnamosasa pusilla, Rhodamnia dumetorum (DC.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Memecylon edule Roxb., Holarrhena curtisii King et Gamble, Gardenia carinata Wall. ex. Roxb., Prismatomeris tetrandra (Rox.b.) K.Schum. var.malayana (Ridl.) Johans. and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana.​- Plant lower-level plants or ground cover in the foreground can create an open space and vista, such as Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith., Crinum amoenum Roxb., Alpinia conchigera Griff., Pavetta indica L., Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn.) Kurz., and Tacca leontopetaloides. ​- Ornamental plants for home decoration tend to be flowering plants or small plants such as Curcuma sessilis Gage., Hegnera obcordata (Miq.) Schindl, Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr., Barleria strigosa Willd., Ageratum conyzoides L., and Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm.​- Unique plants and tree species with distinct traits include Phyllodium elegans (Lour.) Desv., Melastoma malabathricum L., Dasymaschalon lomentaceum Finet et Gagnep, Commelina diffusa, Gardenia carinata Wall. ex. Roxb., Antidesma acidum Retz., Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC., and Acalypha wikesiana Muell-Arg.​If you’re interested in creating tree walls, consider using these plants. You could end up with a magnificent fence and more privacy.​Story by Patcharin Pumjae, Intern form Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University and Thanawat Jinjaruk, Senior Researcher, Environment Division and Urban Environmental & Biodiversity Engineer, RISC​References:​http://forprod.forest.go.th/forprod/techtransfer/document/%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%B9%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B7%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%9D%E0%B8%B6%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A1/%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B8%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%82%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A3/%E0%B8%9B%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B2%E0%B9%84%E0%B8%A1%E0%B9%89%E0%B9%83%E0%B8%99%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%82%E0%B8%95%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B7%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B9%83%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B8%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%82%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%A0%E0%B8%B9%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%96%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%95%E0%B8%A2%E0%B9%8C.pdf ​http://old-book.ru.ac.th/e-book/a/AT459/at459-1.pdf ​https://medthai.com/ ​http://dspace.bu.ac.th/bitstream/123456789/4903/1/Saksorn_Chan.pdf ​https://readthecloud.co/best-plants-for-fence-line/ ​Tanaka, K., Ikeda, S., Kimura, R. & Simazawa, K. (1979). The function of forests in soundproofing. Bulletin Tottori University Foresta, 11, 77–102. ​Cook, D.I. and Van Haverbeke, D.F. (1972). Tree, shrub and landforms for noise control. Journal of soil and water conservation 27, 259-261.​

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